The United Nations has recently published the United Nations World Water Development Report 2021.
The approaches and methodologies currently used in the assessment of water have been grouped on the basis of five interrelated perspectives:
- assessment of sources of resources water and ecosystems in situ
- assessment of hydraulic infrastructures for the storage, use, reuse or increase of the water supply
- assessment of water services, with particular reference to drinking water, sanitation and all aspects related to human health
- evaluation of water as a factor of production and promotion of socio-economic activities such as food and agriculture, energy and industry, businesses and employment;
- further socio-cultural assessments of water including uses for recreational, cultural and spiritual purposes.
This picture is completed by the experiences of different regions of the world, the opportunities to reconcile the multiple values of water through more integrated and holistic governance approaches, the various financing methods and the methodologies that intervene to meet the needs in terms of knowledge, research and skills.